The route that the Mayan Train will follow through five states of the southeast region will travel through territories in which at least 14 different indigenous languages are spoken.
In the nearly 1,500-kilometer project that will cross Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Yucatán, and Quintana Roo, there is the presence of native populations with their own linguistic-cultural expressions, but also those that have adapted their way of communicating over time.
The indigenous languages that prevail correspond to the linguistic variants Ch’ol, Tseltal, Maya, Q’anjob’al, Akateco, Jakalteko, Chuj, Q’eqchi ‘, K’iche, Kaqchikel, Mam, Awakateko, Kaqchikel and Ixil.
In Quintana Roo, for example, the document lists 740 communities through whose municipalities or route the Mayan Train will circulate, such as Othón P. Blanco and the capital Chetumal with 271 indigenous communities, Solidaridad and Tulum with 206, Felipe Carrillo Puerto with 176 and the Cancun-Puerto Morelos corridor with 87.
In the Yucatecan territory, there are at least 505 localities with the same indigenous population with linguistic variants of the Mayan language, of which 185 are in Valladolid, 144 in Chemax, 123 in Mérida, 37 in Celestún, 15 in Izamal, and 1 in the community of Teya.
For Campeche, there are 337 sites that also maintain their original mother tongue, although with some variants, of which 85 are in the fortified city, 63 in Candelaria, 60 in Hopelchén, 48 in Escárcega, 41 in Calkini, and 40 in Calakmul. In Xpujil the Ch’ol del Sureste prevails, which prevails more in Chiapas and Tabasco.
The presence of variants of the Mayan language is lower in Palenque, Chiapas, where 200 localities are counted, while no original groups of this same language are reported in Escárcega, Boca del Cerro or El Triunfo, Tabasco.
In the same document, the linguistic variants, their self-denominations, and geostatistical references that were the result of a census survey carried out in 2000 are contemplated.
The Yucatecan Mayan language originally started from the so-called nuclear Mayan family, but it changed when the inhabitants updated it with their own expressions, even with some that are alien to the way of expressing themselves in other communities. From there the intangible cultural heritage was enriched.
The derivations also gave rise to the Mayan Cholano (Ch’ol), Tseltalano (Tseltal, Q’anjob’al, Akateko and Jakalteko), Chujeano (Chuj and Kaqchike-k’iche ‘) K’icheano (Kaqchikel and K’iche’ ) and mamean (mam and ixil).
In Othón P. Blanco, in addition to the Mayan language, there is also a presence of q’anjob’al, akateko, chuj, q’eqchi ‘, kaqchikel, mam, ixil and jakalteko, the latter also present in Bacalar.
The intangible heritage wealth of these indigenous groups also includes the bouquet of cultural expressions and traditional knowledge that are part of an intangible legacy.
For the National Fund for the Promotion of Tourism (Fonatur) in the projected line, there are more than 90 manifestations, whose inventory Chiapas heads with 36 expressions, in whose list Campeche follows with 22, Yucatán with 13, Quintana Roo maintains 11 and Tabasco nine. According to Fonatur, this “definition, identification and investigation of these manifestations is essential for their safeguarding, and can be an invaluable asset for the sustainable development of the Region.”